Kernow a'gas Dynnergh: "Welcome to Cornwall" - a land of seafaring, legend, luxurious beaches and tropical gardens.
Cornwall is located at the south-west tip of England. Bordered in the east by the river Tamar, the county has the longest stretch of coastline in England, containing over 300 golden beaches. The county is shaped like an irregular triangle or horn, with an underlying rock of mainly slate and granite. The terrain is mostly undulating hills, some being very steep, with the central area covered by Bodmin Moor. The coastline is rich and varied, with small rocky coves, wide sandy beaches and high rugged cliffs along the north Atlantic coast. The south coast is gentler and less steep, interspersed with inlets and river estuaries that wind inland from the sea. The Lizard peninsular is the most southerly point in mainland England, with Land's End the most westerly.
Cornwall has a rich history with copper and tin mining once bringing it substantial wealth. Today its major industry is tourism, however, market gardening, dairy farming, fishing, mining, civil engineering and ship repairing all contribute to its current economy.
Cornwall has retained a strong individuality from the rest of England, over the years. The Cornish language was widely spoken up until the 18th century and many words still survive in the names of places. The following prefixes or suffixes are common in place-names: bron = hill, car, caer = camp, lan = monastery, maen = stone, pen = headland, pol = pool, ros = heath, tre = homestead, worthal = creek or estuary.
For more information on the cornish language visit the Cornish Language Parternship MAGA
The rugged coastline around Cornwall has always been treacherous for shipping. One of the worst incidents was is in 1981, when the Penlee lifeboat attempted to save a freighter in difficulty. Both vessels were lost with all hands.
'From Padstow Point to Lundy Light is a sailor's grave by day or night.'
Truro - distance from London: 218 miles (350 km)
Brown Willy, 1375 feet (419 m)
Allen, Camel, Fal, Fowey, Kenwyn, Tamar, Truro
Cornish pasty - mixture of meat and vegetables in a half-moon shaped pastry case.
Saffron cake - a bread cake flavoured with saffron, candied peel and currants.
Bedruthan Steps | Bodmin Moor | Cadgwith Cove | Cornwall Coastal Footpath | Eden Project | Kynance Cove | Land's End | Lanyon Quoit | Lizard Peninsula | Lizard Lighthouse | Pendennis Castle | Restormel Castle | St Michael's Mount | Tintagel Castle | Tolverne Cottage | Antony House | Caerhays Castle | Cotehele | Lanhydrock | Lost Gardens of Heligan | Mount Edgcombe House | Pencarrow House | Prideaux Place | Trebah Gardens
Bodmin, Boscastle, Bude, Camborne, Camelford, Coverack, Falmouth, Fowey, Helston, Launceston, Liskeard, Lostwithiel, Lizard, Looe, Marazion, Mevagissey, Mousehole, Mullion, Newlyn, Newquay, Redruth, Padstow, Penzance, Perranporth, Polperro, Port Isaac, Porthleven, Porthoustock, Portscatho, St Agnes, St Austell, St Ives, St Keverne, St Mawes, Tintagel, Truro
First recorded in 891 as Cornwalam; the first syllable of the name is taken from the latin 'Cornu', meaning horn, describing the shape of the land. The second syllable is derived from the Old English 'wahl', meaning foreign; as that was how the English termed the Britons in this area.
Cornish tin is known to have been worked since 445 BC and traded as far a field as Greece and Phoenicia. Copper was also mined in the county from earliest recorded times. During the 19th century Cornwall became known as the 'Copper Kingdom'.
The Roman occupation did not extend into Cornwall and its Celtic inhabitants remained pagan until the 5th century, when Irish and Welsh saints came to preach Christianity. Cornwall was not successfully invaded by the English until in the 9th century, when King Egbert merged it into the powerful kingdom of Wessex. The Cornish forged an alliance with the Vikings to try and retain their independence, but were eventually forced to surrender to Alfred the Great.
English landowners were established throughout the region following a conquest by Athelstan in 936. William the Conqueror later made the shire an earldom and in 1336 Edward III created it a Duchy, from whence it has been traditionally held by the Prince of Wales. Under a charter by King Edmund the Stannary Parliament met at Truro and its jurisdiction embraced the tin mines and all mining transactions carried on in the county.
After the Battle of Barnet, during the Wars of the Roses, the Earl of Oxford fled to Cornwall and sought sanctuary on St Michael's Mount. He defended it so bravely that the victorious Yorkists granted him a pardon.
Cornish opposition to the 'Book of Common Prayer' introduced by Cranmer in 1549, grew to armed rebellion, and the Cornish people declared: 'We, the Cornyshe men, whereof certain of us understand no English, utterly refuse this new service'. Eventually the Prayer Book was introduced, with some concessions.
Most of Cornwall was Royalist during the Civil War and two important battles were fought within the county at Braddock Down and Shatton, he Royalists were victorious at both encounters.
Fishing has long been the main livelihood of the inhabitants of the coastal villages, where pilchards were once the most important fish caught. Smuggling was also a flourishing industry during the 18th and 19th centuries, and Mevagissey specialized in building fast sailing vessels for the trade.